Feed, why so complex?

A feed is probably the most common data representation in mobile applications. Just have a look at any app on your phone - Facebook, Instagram, Tweetbot, and even your favourite e-mail or RSS client. Feeds are everywhere. Despite it's a pretty common task we still got a lot of questions about its implementation. The problem gets even harder when there are different content types in one feed.

I've faced this problem not very long ago in LiveJournal application. Our product manager suddenly decided to add new content types in post feeds - marketing notifications, like don't forget to turn push-notifications on, and beloved advertisements.

By the way, I've already made a blog post where I covered advertisement integration using promise pattern in more details.

The requirements for these elements were not straightforward at all.


Notifications (we'll look only at one type, "Do not forget to turn push notifications on"):

The existence of such business requirements literally guarantees that they are not last and in the future we will be asked to integrate other types of feed content.

So, we had to design a module that would work independently of its content. Another nice feature to have was a kind of plugin system, that would allow to add new data sources and cells without touching the whole module.

Until this moment the logic of the feed VIPER module was pretty straightforward:

Pure Feed VIPER Module

The first decision was switching to a declarative style of programming. I've created a simple ContentModel class. Its purpose was to describe a feed and unambiguously identify the content type for each indexPath.

@interface ContentModel : NSObject <NSCopying>

- (void)registerSlotForItemType:(ContentListItemType)type

- (NSUInteger)obtainNumberOfItems;

- (ContentItemType)obtainTypeForPosition:(NSUInteger)position;

- (NSUInteger)obtainRelativeIndexForPosition:(NSUInteger)position


This model is retained by the presenter of the module and updates on every feed change event triggered either by user action (removing a notification cell) or by CoreData notification (inserting new posts).

There is another way. You can give up this intermediate state and form a new ContentModel on every event - but sometimes it can affect the perfomance of your app. Consider these options when implementing your own feed.

The most interesting thing happens in the Interactor. When we want to obtain new ContentModel we call the method:

- (ContentModel *)obtainActualContentListContentModel {
    ContentModel *contentModel = [ContentModel new];
    for (id<DataProvider> provider in self.dataProviders) {
        contentModel = [provider enrichContentModel:contentModel];
    return contentModel;

The Interactor stores an array of <DataProvider> objects responsible for providing elements only of a specific type.

Data Providers

Let's look at the implementation of a DataProvider responsible for working with posts. The first method is used to understand the kind of supported item:

- (BOOL)isResponsibleForItemType:(ContentItemType)itemType {
    return itemType == ContentPostItem;


The second method is used for enriching the ContentModel. It's implementation can rely on the information from ContentModel which was added by previous providers. E.g. the AdvertisementProvider may count the number of posts and insert its elements on the right places:

- (ContentModel *)enrichContentModel:(ContentModel *)contentModel {
    NSUInteger numberOfPosts = self.controller.fetchedObjects.count;

    for (NSUInteger i = 0; i < numberOfPosts; i++) {
        [contentModel registerSlotForItemType:ContentListPostItem

    return contentModel;

Enriching Content

And the last method is used to obtain a specified item from the cache. Interactor passes its index relative to the current DataProvider to simplify calculations.

- (id)obtainElementForRelativePosition:(NSUInteger)position {
    NSIndexPath *indexPath = [NSIndexPath indexPathForRow:position
    PostModelObject *post = [self.controller objectAtIndexPath:indexPath];
    return post;

That's all for DataProviders. The other part of the system is a CellObjectFactory, which is responsible for creating a correct CellObject (just a dumb view model) for a given model object. The implementation of the factory is straightforward:

@protocol ContentCellObjectFactory <NSObject>

- (id<ContentListCellObject>)cellObjectWithViewModel:(id)viewModel;

- (BOOL)canProcessViewModel:(id)viewModel;


So, when a UITableViewDataSource needs a cell, it queries the array of cell object factories until one of them takes responsibility for a given type of model object.

Finally, let's see the whole data flow:

Enriching Content

Let's see what we've got:

Besides this article, you can have a look at one of our internal meetups where my colleague gave a brief talk on the subject. And if you've got questions on how to implement feed pagination - my own talk will definitely help you with that.